È possibile una gestione “ideale” della pandemia da malattia renale cronica?


  • Stefano Michelassi SOC Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale S.M. Annunziata – Firenze 2, USL Toscana Centro, Firenze - Italy



Parole chiave:

CKD prevention, Food deserts, PM2.5, SDGs


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is recognized as one of the major categories of noncommunicable epidemic diseases and in the last decades it has been largely growing in incidence and prevalence all over the world. Ideal management of CKD pandemic should be comprehensive of measures of tertiary, secondary, primary and primordial prevention. So, it should include prompt diagnosis and treatment of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CKD, optimal conservative treatment for non-dialysis dependent CKD patients and appropriated dialysis therapy or renal transplantation for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, these goals are not easy to obtain on a global scale. It would be possible only by a broad and holistic approach, ranging from good governance to achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Riferimenti bibliografici

Annual Data Report//Chronic Kidney Disease//1: CKD in the General Population. https://adr.usrds.org/2020/chronic-kidney-disease/1-ckd-in-the-general-population (data di accesso ottobre 2021)

Xie Y, Bowe B, Mokdad AH, et al. Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study highlights the global, regional, and national trends of chronic kidney disease epidemiology from 1990 to 2016. Kidney Int. 2018;94(3):567-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.04.011PMID:30078514 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.04.011

Komenda P, Ferguson TW, Macdonald K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of primary screening for CKD: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63(5):789-797. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.12.012 PMID:24529536 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.12.012

Ministero della Salute. Documento di indirizzo per la malattia renale cronica. https://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_2244_allegato.pdf (data di accesso ottobre 2021)

Vassalotti JA, Centor R, Turner BJ, Greer RC, Choi M, Sequist TD; National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Practical Approach to Detection and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease for the Primary Care Clinician. Am J Med. 2016;129(2):153-162.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.08.025 PMID:26391748 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.08.025

International Diabetes Federation. https://idf.org/ (data di accesso ottobre 2021)

Mills KT, Stefanescu A, He J. The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(4):223-237. www.nature.com/nrneph https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0244-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0244-2

Bello AK, Levin A, Manns BJ, et al; Kidney Health for Life Initiative. Effective CKD care in European countries: challenges and opportunities for health policy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65(1):15-25. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.07.033 PMID:25455091 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.07.033

Bello AK, Levin A, Tonelli M, et al. Assessment of Global Kidney Health Care Status. JAMA. 2017;317(18):1864-1881. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.4046 PMID:28430830 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.4046

Bello AK, Alrukhaimi M, Ashuntantang GE, et al. Global overview of health systems oversight and financing for kidney care. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2018;8(2):41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.008 PMID:30675438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.008

Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Jha V, et al. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review. Lancet. 2015;385(9981):1975-1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61601-9 PMID:25777665 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61601-9

Haroun MK, Jaar BG, Hoffman SC, Comstock GW, Klag MJ, Coresh J. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease: a prospective study of 23,534 men and women in Washington County, Maryland. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(11):2934-2941. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000095249.99803.85 PMID:14569104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000095249.99803.85

Yamagata K, Ishida K, Sairenchi T, et al. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: a 10-year follow-up study. Kidney Int. 2007;71(2):159-166. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ki.5002017 PMID:17136030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ki.5002017

Hallan S, de Mutsert R, Carlsen S, Dekker FW, Aasarød K, Holmen J. Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as risk factors for CKD: are men more vulnerable? Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;47(3):396-405. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.11.027 PMID:16490617 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.11.027

Merkin SS, Diez Roux AV, Coresh J, Fried LF, Jackson SA, Powe NR. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and progressive chronic kidney disease in an elderly population: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65(4):809-821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.011 PMID:17499411 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.011

Rose D, Richards R. Food store access and household fruit and vegetable use among participants in the US Food Stamp Program. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(8):1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004648 PMID:15548347 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004648

Dutko P, Ver Ploeg M, Farrigan T. Characteristics and influential factors of food deserts. [Washington, D.C.] US Dept of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; 2012.

Cameron AJ, Thornton LE, McNaughton SA, Crawford D. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(7):1178-1185. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012002649 PMID:22613746 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012002649

Franco M, Diez Roux AV, Glass TA, Caballero B, Brancati FL. Neighborhood characteristics and availability of healthy foods in Baltimore. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(6):561-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.07.003 PMID:18842389 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.07.003

Gutiérrez OM. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015;22(1):31-38. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2014.05.005 PMID:25573510 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2014.05.005

Ruggajo P, Skrunes R, Svarstad E, Skjærven R, Reisæther AV, Vikse BE. Familial Factors, Low Birth Weight, and Development of ESRD: A Nationwide Registry Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;67(4):601-608. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.11.015 PMID:26747633 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.11.015

Blencowe H, Krasevec J, de Onis M, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of low birthweight in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2019;7(7):e849-e860. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30565-5 PMID:31103470 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30565-5

Hsu CW, Yamamoto KT, Henry RK, De Roos AJ, Flynn JT. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(9):2105-2111. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013060582PMID:24744441 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013060582

Johnson RJ, Wesseling C, Newman LS. Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Cause in Agricultural Communities. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(19):1843-1852. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1813869 PMID:31067373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1813869

Hendryx M. Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82(2):243-249. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-008-0328-y PMID:18461350 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-008-0328-y

Mehta AJ, Zanobetti A, Bind MA, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and renal function in older men: The Veterans Administration Normative Aging study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124(9):1353-1360. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510269 PMID:26955062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510269

Bowe B, Xie Y, Li T, Yan Y, Xian H, Al-Aly Z. Particulate Matter Air Pollution and the Risk of Incident CKD and Progression to ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(1):218-230. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017030253 PMID:28935655 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017030253

Bowe B, Xie Y, Li T, Yan Y, Xian H, Al-Aly Z. Estimates of the 2016 global burden of kidney disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter air pollution. BMJ Open. 2019;9(5):e022450. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022450 PMID:31072847 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022450

Luyckx VA, Cherney DZI, Bello AK. Preventing CKD in Developed Countries. Kidney Int Rep. 2019;5(3):263-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.12.003 PMID:32154448 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.12.003

WHO. Institutional Repository for Information Sharing. Saving lives, spending less: a strategic response to noncommunicable diseases. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272534 (data di accesso ottobre 2021)




Come citare

Michelassi S. È possibile una gestione “ideale” della pandemia da malattia renale cronica?. G Clin Nefrol Dial [Internet]. 8 gennaio 2022 [citato 9 dicembre 2022];34(1):1-9. Available at: https://journals.aboutscience.eu/index.php/gcnd/article/view/2352



Short Communications

Puoi leggere altri articoli dello stesso autore/i