Renal transplant: gender differences


  • Anna Laura Fantuzzi Dietista già Coordinatore Nutrizione e Dietetica Aziendale, AUSL Modena, Comitato Scientifico ASAND (Associazione Scientifica Alimentazione Nutrizione e Dietetica) - Italy
  • Elisa Berri Dietista, Dipartimento di Cure Primarie, AUSL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia - Italy
  • Lida Tartaglione Dirigente Medico, UOC Nefrologia, AOU Policlinico Umberto I di Roma - Italy
  • Rossella Giannini Dietista, SSD Malattie del Metabolismo e Nutrizione Clinica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena - Italy
  • Sara Dominjanni Dirigente Medico, UOC Nefrologia e Dialisi Ospedale Sant’Eugenio, ASL Roma 2, Roma - Italy
  • Silvia Porreca Dirigente Medico, U.O. C. di Nefrologia e Dialisi, P.O. “Di Venere”, Bari - ASL BA - Italy


Parole chiave:

Gender, Kidney transplantation, Organ donation, Sex


Renal transplantation represents the best treatment for end-stage kidney disease, leading to improved quality of life and life-expectancy for most of the patients. However, gender disparities are evident both in access and in outcomes of kidney transplantation. Women on dialysis are less likely to be on the waiting list for kidney transplantation and to receive an organ from a deceased donor or living donor. Several biological and sociocultural aspects could explain this disparity. On the contrary, more women than men are living kidney donors. Italian women are the first organ donors for living transplants in Europe. The gender difference in living donation is certainly affected by different comorbidities, but such a marked trend highlights a greater predisposition to donate of women, especially in the family context. Some differences are also found in kidney outcomes, even not fully understood. Our paper analyzes the main differences in different aspects of kidney transplantation related to gender, including nutritional aspects.


I dati di download non sono ancora disponibili.

Riferimenti bibliografici

Hart A, Lentine KL, Smith JM, et al. OPTN/SRTR 2019 annual data report: kidney. Am J Transplant. 2021;21(suppl 2):21-137. PMID:33595191

Jindal RM, Ryan JJ, Sajjad I, Murthy MH, Baines LS. Kidney transplantation and gender disparity. Am J Nephrol. 2005;25(5):474-483. PMID:16127268

Bloembergen WE, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA, Port FK. Association of gender and access to cadaveric renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;30(6):733-738. PMID:9398115

Salter ML, Gupta N, Massie AB, et al. Perceived frailty and measured frailty among adults undergoing hemodialysis: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2015;15(1):52. PMID:25903561

Salter ML, McAdams-Demarco MA, Law A, et al. Age and sex disparities in discussions about kidney transplantation in adults undergoing dialysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(5):843-849. PMID:24801541

Schold JD, Gregg JA, Harman JS, Hall AG, Patton PR, Meier-Kriesche HU. Barriers to evaluation and wait listing for kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(7):1760-1767. PMID:21597030

Alexander GC, Sehgal AR. Barriers to cadaveric renal transplantation among blacks, women, and the poor. JAMA. 1998;280(13):1148-1152. PMID:9777814

Ravanan R, Udayaraj U, Ansell D, et al. Variation between centres in access to renal transplantation in UK: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. 2010;341(jul20 1):c3451. PMID:20647283

Couchoud C, Bayat S, Villar E, et al. A new approach for measuring gender disparity in access to renal transplantation waiting lists. Transplantation. 2012;94(5):513-519. PMID:22895611

Melk A, Babitsch B, Borchert-Mörlins B, et al. Equally interchangeable? How sex and gender affect transplantation. Transplantation. 2019;103(6):1094-1110. PMID:30747857

Centro Nazionale Trapianti.Valutazione di qualità dell’attività del trapianto di rene 2000-2019. Online May 2023)

Fantuzzi AL, Berri E, Tartaglione L, Giannini R, Dominjanni e Porreca S. Salute renale per tutti e ovunque: riflessioni al femminile sul tema centrale della Giornata Mondiale del Rene. G Clin Nefrol Dial. 2020;32(1):73-80.

Zimmerman D, Donnelly S, Miller J, Stewart D, Albert SE. Gender disparity in living renal transplant donation. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36(3):534-540. PMID:10977785

Donazione di organi da vivente e differenze di genere dati sistema informativo trapianti 2001-2017. (Accessed May 2023). Online

ISS Salute. Donazione di organi da vivente e differenze di genere. Dati Sistema Informativo Trapianti 2001-2017. Online May 2023)

Centro Nazionale Trapianti.Donazione di organi da vivente e differenze di genere. Dati sistema informativo trapianti 2001-2017. Online (Accessed May 2023)

Centro Nazionale Trapianti. ISS Salute. Trapianti da vivente, la generosità è donna: le donatrici sono il doppio degli uomini. Online (Accessed May 2023)

Chen PD, Tsai MK, Lee CY, et al. Gender differences in renal transplant graft survival. J Formos Med Assoc. 2013;112(12):783-788. PMID:24246256

Klein SL, Marriott I, Fish EN. Sex-based differences in immune function and responses to vaccination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015;109(1):9-15. PMID:25573105

Rosenberger J, Geckova AM, van Dijk JP, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of noncompliant behaviour and its risk factors in kidney transplant recipients. Transpl Int. 2005;18(9):1072-1078. PMID:16101729

Aufhauser DD Jr, Wang Z, Murken DR, et al. Improved renal ischemia tolerance in females influences kidney transplantation outcomes. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(5):1968-1977. PMID:27088798

Fouque D. Why is the diet intervention so critical during chronic kidney disease? J Ren Nutr. 2003;13(3):173. PMID:12874740

Strejc J. Nutrition guidelines after kidney transplantation. J Ren Nutr. 2000;10(3):161-167. PMID:10921538

Rutkowski P, Klassen A, Sebekova K, Bahner U, Heidland A. Renal disease in obesity: the need for greater attention. J Ren Nutr. 2006;16(3):216-223. PMID:16825023

Mitch WE, Klahr S. Handbook of nutrition and the kidney. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.

Beto JA, Ramirez WE, Bansal VK. Medical nutrition therapy in adults with chronic kidney disease: integrating evidence and consensus into practice for the generalist registered dietitian nutritionist. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul;114(7):1077-1087. PMID: 24582998

National Kidnely Foundation. Foods to Avoid After Transplantation. Online May 2023)

Fantuzzi AL, Gennari A, Pasticci F, Setari M, Tundo R. Ruolo del Dietista nella gestione nutrizionale del paziente con malattia renale cronica. Posizione dell’Associazione Nazionale Dietisti (ANDID). 2004. Online May 2023)

United States Department of Agriculture. Food Safety A Need-to-Know Guide for Those at Risk. Online May 2023)

Beto JA, Schury KA, Bansal VK. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2016;9:21-33. PMID:26893578



Come citare

Fantuzzi AL, Berri E, Tartaglione L, Giannini R, Dominjanni S, Porreca S. Renal transplant: gender differences. G Clin Nefrol Dial [Internet]. 5 agosto 2023 [citato 23 settembre 2023];35(1):45-50. Available at:



Articoli originali


Received 2023-05-20
Accepted 2023-06-26
Published 2023-08-05

Puoi leggere altri articoli dello stesso autore/i