Sex and gender disparities in lupus nephropathy and kidney transplantation


  • Marcora Mandreoli Comitato Tecnico Scientifico Progetto regionale PIRP (Prevenzione Insufficienza Renale Progressiva)



Gender, Disparities, Lupus nephritis, Kidney transplantation


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a clear prevalence in females. Although there are conflicting data, among males affected by SLE to a higher proportion develop lupus nephritis, with a more severe histological and clinical pattern than in females. More frequently males also present an antiphospholipid syndrome. Males are less likely to achieve clinical remission of lupus nephritis.

A sex and gender disparity is also present in all the phases preceding the kidney transplant starting from the referral for eligibility and registration on the active waiting list. There is a perception among healthcare staff that women have a greater degree of fragility and are therefore less eligible for kidney transplantation. Women also encounter obstacles in completing the tests necessary for inclusion on the waiting list and in many Health Care contexts they are less likely to have a transplant. In the field of living transplantation, women represent over half of all donors, while males are predominantly recipients. Long-term patient and graft survival appear superior in women compared to men.


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How to Cite

Mandreoli, M. (2023). Sex and gender disparities in lupus nephropathy and kidney transplantation. Giornale Di Clinica Nefrologica E Dialisi, 35(1), 66–72.



Original articles


Received 2023-09-12
Accepted 2023-10-04
Published 2023-10-17