Impact of clinico-biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers on the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral vaccine: a longitudinal study


  • Sabhiya Majid Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India
  • Mosin Saleem Khan Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India and Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College Baramulla and Associated Hospitals, Baramulla, J&K - India
  • Najila Nisar Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India
  • Javid A Bhat Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India
  • Inaamul Haq Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Government Medical College Srinagar and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India
  • S Muhammad Salim Khan Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Government Medical College Srinagar and Associated SMHS and Super Speciality Hospital, Srinagar, J&K - India



COVID-19, CRP, IgG, LDH, SARS-CoV-2, Spike protein, Total antibodies, Vaccines


Purpose: Due to a lack of effective antiviral treatment, several vaccines have been put forth to curb SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection and to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate by eliciting a protective immune response, primarily through virus-neutralizing antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This longitudinal study was designed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness and immune response following the administration of adenoviral vaccine, COVISHIELD, in Indian population who were previously uninfected with SARS-CoV-2 and to reveal the effect of various sociodemographic, inflammatory and biochemical factors on antibody response.

Methods: Briefly, the total immunoglobulin G (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein along with the immunological markers were estimated by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) technology. Biochemical parameters were estimated by spectrometry.

Results: A total of 348 subjects received two doses of COVISHIELD (224 males, 124 females). The mean age of the study subjects was 42.03 ± 13.54 years. Although both the doses of COVISHIELD against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein induced a robust immune response that lasted for months in all the subjects, the total IgG titer against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was found significantly higher in subjects ≥50 years of age, and those with obesity, elevated triglycerides and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels.

Conclusions: There is a definite effect of age and biochemical factors on the immunogenicity of COVISHIELD. An understanding of these factors could not only impact the design of vaccines and help improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy but also assist in decisions on vaccination schedules, in order to combat this deadly pandemic.


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How to Cite

Majid, S., Khan, M. S., Nisar, N., Bhat, J. A., Haq, I., & Khan, S. M. S. (2023). Impact of clinico-biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers on the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral vaccine: a longitudinal study. Journal of Circulating Biomarkers, 12(1), 34–43.



Original research article
Received 2022-08-03
Accepted 2023-09-04
Published 2023-09-20


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