A systematic review of mucoadhesive vaginal tablet testing


  • Ismin Zainol Abidin PRISM Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Athlone Campus, Westmeath - Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2912-4210
  • Emma Murphy PRISM Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Athlone Campus, Westmeath - Ireland and Shannon Applied Biotechnology Centre, Department of Applied Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Moylish Campus, Limerick - Ireland and LIFE—Health and Biosciences Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon, Midwest Campus, Limerick - Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5620-0058
  • Gustavo Waltzer Fehrenbach Bioscience Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Athlone Campus, Westmeath - Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9389-3391
  • Emanuele Rezoagli Department of Emergency and Intensive Care, San Gerardo University Hospital, Monza - Italy and School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza - Italy https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4506-7212
  • Noel Gately PRISM Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Athlone Campus, Westmeath - Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2610-2975
  • Ian Major PRISM Research Institute, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Athlone Campus, Westmeath - Ireland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0538-9786




Dissolution, Mucoadhesion, Physicochemical, Swelling


Drug administration through the vaginal tract is one of the oldest modalities of pharmacotherapy, and it is also one of the most explored. Since the vaginal cavity has a wide surface area, a plentiful blood supply, and a complex network of blood arteries, it can evade hepatic first-pass metabolism and obtain high local drug concentrations. Vaginal pills look to be a good dose form since they are simple to use, portable, and can easily deliver the required amount of medicine. Vaginal formulations, on the other hand, are vulnerable to rapid expulsion due to the vaginal tract’s self-cleaning action, which reduces the formulation’s efficiency. Currently, there is an increasing amount of focus on mucoadhesive vaginal formulation research and development to fix the formulation at the place where the medicine can be released and/or absorbed. This article examines all of the strategies used by researchers to develop a mucoadhesive vaginal tablet that is safe, effective, and comfortable for the user.


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How to Cite

Zainol Abidin, I., Murphy, E., Fehrenbach, G. W., Rezoagli, E., Gately, N., & Major, I. (2023). A systematic review of mucoadhesive vaginal tablet testing. Drug Target Insights, 17(1), 5–30. https://doi.org/10.33393/dti.2023.2477
Received 2022-07-27
Accepted 2022-12-07
Published 2023-01-16