Cost-minimization analysis to support the HTA of Radiofrequency Echographic Multi Spectrometry (REMS) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis


  • Ludovica Borsoi Centre for Research on Health and Social Care Management (CERGAS) SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan - Italy
  • Patrizio Armeni Centre for Research on Health and Social Care Management (CERGAS) SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan - Italy
  • Maria Luisa Brandi Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sulle Malattie dell’Osso, Florence - Italy



Cost-minimization analysis, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), Economic evaluation, Health Technology Assessment (HTA), osteoporosis, Radiofrequency Echographic Multi Spectrometry (REMS)


Introduction: A timely diagnosis of osteoporosis is key to reducing its growing clinical and economic burden. Radiofrequency Echographic Multi Spectrometry (REMS), a new diagnostic technology using an ultrasound approach, has been recognized by scientific associations as a facilitator of patients’ care pathway. We aimed at evaluating the costs of REMS vs. the conventional ionizing technology (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) using a cost-minimization analysis (CMA).

Methods: We carried out structured qualitative interviews and a structured expert elicitation exercise to estimate healthcare resource consumption with a purposeful sample of clinical experts. For the elicitation exercise, an Excel tool was developed and, for each parameter, experts were asked to provide the lowest, highest and most likely value. Estimates provided by experts were averaged with equal weights. Unit costs were retrieved using different public sources.

Results: Considering the base-case scenario (most likely value), the cost of professionals amounts to €31.9 for REMS and €48.8 for DXA, the cost of instrumental examinations and laboratory tests to €45.1 for REMS and €68.2 for DXA. Overall, in terms of current costs, REMS is associated with a mean saving for the NHS of €40.0 (range: €27.6-71.5) for each patient.

Conclusions: REMS is associated with lower direct healthcare costs with respect to DXA. These results may inform policy-makers on the value of the REMS technology in the earlier diagnosis for osteoporosis, and support their decision regarding the reimbursement and diffusion of the technology in the Italian NHS.


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How to Cite

Borsoi, L., Armeni, P., & Brandi, M. L. (2023). Cost-minimization analysis to support the HTA of Radiofrequency Echographic Multi Spectrometry (REMS) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Global and Regional Health Technology Assessment, 10(1), 1–11.



Original Research Articles
Received 2022-09-15
Accepted 2023-01-15
Published 2023-02-06


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