The psychometric properties of the modified fear of falling avoidance behavior questionnaire in Parkinson’s disease and older adults


  • Merrill Landers Department of Physical Therapy, School of Integrated Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada - USA
  • Ash M. Haller Sequoia Hospital, Dignity Health, Redwood City, California - USA
  • Arturo Aldaco Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center, Las Vegas, Nevada - USA
  • Billy La FYZICAL Balance and Therapy Centers – Buffalo, Las Vegas, Nevada - USA
  • Adetayo A. Babarinde School of Integrated Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada - USA
  • John V. Rider School of Occupational Therapy, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, Nevada - USA
  • Jason K. Longhurst Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Doisy College of Health Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri - USA



Balance, Balance confidence, Falls, Gait, Postural instability, Reliability


Introduction: The Fear of Falling Avoidance Behavior Questionnaire (FFABQ) has good psychometric properties. However, a recently modified version (mFFABQ) was theorized to be easier to understand because the updated Likert responses are more consistent with the item stem. This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the mFFABQ in older adults and in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Methods: A total of 88 participants, 39 with PD (age = 72.2 ± 9.5; 29 males, 10 females) and 49 older adults (age = 72.8 ± 5.0; 13 males, 36 females) answered the mFFABQ twice, separated by one week, for test-retest reliability. Construct validity was evaluated through correlational analyses with fall history, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, 30 Second Sit to Stand, Sensory Organization Test, Zung Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory; Consequences of Falling Questionnaire (CoFQ), and average daily activity levels using an activity monitor.

Results: The mFFABQ had good overall test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.822 (older adult ICC = 0.781, PD ICC = .806). The mFFABQ correlated with fall history (r=-0.430) and exhibited high correlation with the ABC (rho=-.804) and moderate correlations with CoFQ (rho=.582) and BBS (rho=-.595). The mFFABQ also correlated with time stepping (rho=-.298), and number of steps (rho=-.358).

Discussion: These results provide supportive evidence for the reliability and validity of the mFFABQ in older adults and people with PD, which supports its suitability as a clinical and research tool for the assessment of fear of falling avoidance behavior.


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How to Cite

Landers, M., Haller, A. M., Aldaco, A., La, B., Babarinde, A. A., Rider, J. V., & Longhurst, J. K. (2024). The psychometric properties of the modified fear of falling avoidance behavior questionnaire in Parkinson’s disease and older adults. Archives of Physiotherapy, 14(1), 11–19.



Original Research Article


Received 2023-10-27
Accepted 2024-04-04
Published 2024-05-02